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When operating direct to modem it is non-trivial to determine when a given frequency has an error rate that is too high. OTAM is the approach used to address this. This transmission will be processed as for a ship and the receive stream fed back to the OTAM process. The OTAM process can compare the transmit and receive data streams. If they vary by more than a configurable amount i. The management process will use this information to change transmit frequency. One OTAM process may be used to monitor multiple broadcast streams. This is done by using a switch on the receive streams, so that each one is fed in turn to OTAM.

Event Information

This stream switching is controlled by the management process, so that it can infer based on timing which stream an error reported by the OTAM process refers to. Stream switching is transparent to the OTAM process. Isode releases from R Although OTAM will be used to help avoid very high error rates, the receiving ACP system will get data errors in a direct to modem configuration.

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An approach is needed to deal with such errors, of which there are two types. The first type of error is where the link data error leads to the ACP message being modified in a way that leads to the received data being invalid format. M-Switch will handle this by a special ACP correction process with a Web interface used by an operator trained to correct ACP messages, which are text format. This operator interface will present the ACP message exactly as received.

If some parts of the message can be parsed, the results of this parsing will be shown. The operator will be able to edit the message to fix up the problems caused by data errors, and then verify using the UI that the modified message parses correctly. The operator will then be able to inject this modified message into M-Switch for normal processing.

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The second type of error is where the link data error modifies the message in a way that does not impact ACP inbound processing e. A simple approach, which is often used in practice, is to automatically process the message and for the message recipient to deal with any message corruption in the way they best can.

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The alternative is to pass every message to an operator for correction, so that a skilled operator can fix up errors prior to transmission to final recipients. The M-Switch capabilities to do this are described later. The HF Subsystem will comprise many components at many sites. This section looks at how the Isode elements are configured into such circuits.


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Although Icon can use TCP connections to modern modems and crypto, use of serial ports is the most likely approach. These connections can be made directly e. A more flexible approach is use of a Serial Hub, which is a device used to connect multiple serial devices. These end points need to be connected through Icon to the HF Subsystem. Isode OTAM processes also need to be connected. This is handled by a "Circuit Management" management tool shown above.

ACP is an old protocol with a range of functionality and reliability issues inherent to the design. Isode's approach to ACP is to keep it on the edge of Isode's system wherever possible.

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ACP systems were deployed into an environment with high levels of human operator support. There is a "fire and forget" expectation that if an error is made in sending a message, then a human operator will fix it up en-route.


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  • Modern messaging systems put much more emphasis into ensuring that messages are correct when they are sent, which minimizes the requirement for human intervention. Even when interfacing primarily with modern systems, there is an expectation of capability for correction and vetting in a system handling ACP BRASS has an additional requirement in that messages are being sent out over a very slow link, and it is important to only use the link for traffic that is vital and will not overload the link.

    So there need to be mechanisms for appropriate vetting of the traffic that is sent over the link and to strip out information that is not needed. M-Switch provides vetting and correction capabilities to address these requirements. Both of these have a Web interface to make it convenient for operators to operate from any location.

    These interfaces operate on messages within the M-Switch queue, and so provide a reliable approach that does not take the messages away from the core switching of M-Switch: they are held in the queue while operator actions occur. Correction is generally applied to messages that would not be delivered correctly "as is". Some examples:. The correction interface allows the operator to modify the message, in the context of the reason for M-Switch being unable to process the message "as is'.

    Vetting may be applied to all messages, or to messages which match specific criteria, such as:. The vetting interface simply allows the operator to view each message and make a decision to allow the message or to not allow it. An important change that seems reasonably straightforward and will give significant benefits is to use STANAG for all links and in particular the non-ARQ service for broadcast.

    There are a number of advantages:. The GMDSS, for the first time, changed this procedure and established a new fundamental principle that a ship in distress should send its alert to a shore, which would then accept the responsibility of co-ordinating the necessary rescue efforts.

    Thus every ship has to carry a core installation of basic equipment that is applicable to all waters, supplemented by additional equipment that extends the ships communications capabilities according to the specific waters in which she will sail. These supplementary requirements are defined by the distance offshore the ship will travel:. Sea Area A3: the area, excluding Sea Areas A1 and A2, within the coverage of an Inmarsat geostationary satellite in which continuous alerting is available; and.

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    Sea Area A4 cannot, by definition, be covered by the Inmarsat satellites and so ships operating in those waters — essentially the northern waters of the Arctic region — need to make provision for using HF communications. They can send a distress alert to the shore automatically to alert a Rescue Co-ordination Centre RCC that a ship is in distress in a particular location, but they cannot be used for two-way voice or data communications. The shore authorities co-operate to structure this broadcast in such a way that intelligent receivers can discriminate between information that is relevant to a particular ship and other information that is not, automatically discarding those messages that are not relevant to the ship in which the particular receiver is carried.

    This, of course, requires some specific user choices to be applied in the software before the equipment can operate in this way. It is this that gives rise directly to the need for the international community to establish special arrangements for the international supervision of satellite-based communication facilities for the GMDSS, which have been developed and are implemented by IMSO. GMDSS carriage requirements are also applied to some fishing vessels by national legislation. Key activities include; strengthen legal, policy and regulatory framework, more effective labour inspection and enforcement, improve core labour standards compliance Good Labour Practices , and strengthen worker activities and access to support services.

    The duration of the project is 3 years - These improvements were resulted from legislative reforms and closer scrutiny in the implementation of laws and regulations by concerned Thai agencies. In this connection, the Thai side is also aware of the rights violations stated in the research as well as has received relevant information on this issue and cooperated with ILO to continuously address these issues.

    To prevent confusion and misunderstanding, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs would like to additionally point out that the Department of Fishery had issued a Notification on 25 December , requesting all owners of fishing vessels, weighing 30 gross tons and above and operating outside Thai waters to bring the vessels back to port within 30 days of the issuance of the Notification.